There are a few terms that are important to any writer as well as those who are publishing their own work. These terms have been included here and others may be found in the Writer Glossary
Absorbent Paper (see Paper): Covering a variety of papers made for absorbing water and inks (degrees vary). Examples: duplicating, filter, blotting and toweling papers.
*Acid Free Books (see Archival): The use of this term varies from the logical definition of the individual words to a wide variety of standards - always have a company explain their definition. An acid free book depend on internal (book materials) and external factors (chemical processes, environment, etc.). See Also Archival webpage.
Acid Free (Paper) (see pH Balanced): The use of this term varies from the logical definition of the individual words to a wide variety of standards - always have a company explain their definition. See Also Archival webpage. Having no acidity and no residual acid-producing chemicals. Below is a definition from "Preserving Family Keepsakes Do's and Don'ts", Ilene Chandler Miller, 1996:
"Any paper that contains an alkaline (pH higher than 7 or an absence of acid) base and is often lignin-free."
Acid Transfer: The act of acid migrating from one object or item to another. See Also Archival webpage.
Advanced Reading Copy (ARC): A sample publication produced with author/customer submitted material. Many times this is in an alternate binding (or unbound with small publications) than the main publishing. The reproduction process is usually not the same as the main printing (100+) and therefore differences in quality, text block placement, etc. may occur between the ARC and the published book. For POD, however, this gives the customer the chance to see the quality of photograph the supplied material will produce. Since Gregath works mainly from submitted camera ready copy, an ARC is generally not necessary. Our quality guarantee covers any printer error (such as upside down photos) that may occasionally occur.
Adhesive binding: Soft or hard type binding - most associated with perfect soft binding. Pages held together by adhesive/glue, rather than any form or sewing or mechanical attachment (stapled). Block then attached to paper (soft) or hard cover case.
Adhesive binding - Double-Fan: Hard type binding. Pages held together by adhesive/glue, applied first while binding edge is fanned in one direction, and second as finned in the opposite direction - may be notched. Meets library binding standard: ANSI/NISO/LIB Z39.78
Against the Grain: Folding, scoring, binding, or printing at right angles to the alignment of the fibers of the paper.
ARC: abbreviation - Advanced Reading Copy
Archival (Quality): The use of this term varies from the logical definition of the individual words to a wide variety of standards - always have a company explain their definition. See Also Archival webpage. Below is a definition from "Preserving Family Keepsakes Do's and Don'ts", Ilene Chandler Miller, 1996:
"A term that suggests a material or item is permanent, durable and chemically stable and therefore safe for the preservation of our keepsakes."
Art(work): Non-text material (in our shop, this excludes photographs) - may include such things as decorative lettering (not font related), drawings, ornamentation, tables, charts, sketches, maps, reproductions of documents, decorative borders, etc.
Basic Size: Standard sheet size per type of paper that determines the weight.
Back/Backing (see round): The binding process of dispersing the swelling of the spine of a rounded text block and shaping it into a shoulder on each side of the spine of a text block. Backing accommodates the thickness of the boards, and provides a hinge along which they can swing freely. Backing also helps to prevent the spine of the text block from collapsing into a concave shape over time. To accommodate this step, spine must be soft strip.
*Backbone (see spine): Center edge of a book perpendicular to and between its covers.
*Backing up: Printing a sheet after one side has already been printed.
Bar code: Symbol capable of being read by an optical scanner. Generally placed on back cover providing specific information about item.
Binding: Folded sheets (signatures) or single leaves (pages) secured on one edge (spine) and protected by a cover.
text block that is attached by
sewing or adhesive binding, etc.
Binding Margin (inner, gutter, or back margin): Margin where text block is attached: The distance between the binding edge of a printed page and the text area.
Bleed: A printed image that extends beyond the trim edge of a sheet of paper or cover.
*Blue line: For Gregath use, see ARC. Below is a definition from "The What Shall I Write Handbook", Corrine Russell, 1992, that is a good addition to our ARC entry:
"Blue lines are page proofs. They represent your last chance to review copy looking for errors. Depending on the printing process your printer uses, blue lines may be expensive to produce, and many printers will not provide them unless you request them. If printers do provide them, they may be expensive, so ask first. Blue lines may be a good idea if you have a lot of photographs, for blue lines present your only opportunity to see photographs in place. Check them carefully. Make sure they are in the correct position, and that they are not upside down or turned backward. Because blue lines are so expensive to produce, now is the time to start editing and proofreading. Unless they are printer's errors, changes made at this point cost you dearly."
Bonded Leather: A hard binding material that is made by mixing genuine leather fibers with an adhesive - bonding them into a viable cover material that is then embossed to reproduce the original texture. Less durable than genuine leather, it does retain it's distinct smell.
Book Corners: see Corners.
Brightness: The brilliance or light-reflection characteristic of paper (not necessarily related to its color or whiteness).
Brittle paper (in rebinding): Paper that breaks when folded or crumpled. We don't recommend regular rebinding this type of paper - we suggest visiting a conservator instead.
Buffered (Paper): Acid free and contains 2% calcium carbonate (or other compound) to act as a barrier to reduce future acid contamination. See Also Archival webpage
Camera Ready (see below): Material prepared for "shooting": Many printing is done utilizing photography or scanning in the early stages of the process.
Camera-Ready Digital File (Manuscript): A digital file or files, stored on the internet or removable media, that contains Camera Ready Manuscript to be printed.
Camera-Ready Digital Print Manuscript (CRDPM):/Camera-Ready Copy Machine Manuscript (CRCMM): hard copy/document feedable (* no paste up, attachments, gummy labels, etc.), single sheets printed one side, all same size, with binding margin (if desired). Many times, these will need to be digitized for optimum quality. Note: two sided manuscripts can sometimes create copy difficulties, therefore, we discourage such practices. Please note that all forms of reproduction will lose some clarity.
Camera Ready (hard copy) Manuscript (mssc or CRM): Basically "what you see is what you get", printed on one side of the paper, it includes text, artwork, documents, and spaces for photos. Any blemishes, coffee stains, or copy machine "splatter" on the original will be on the final copy (finished books). Please note that all forms of reproduction from this manuscript will lose some clarity.
Check-in (pre-press): Procedure all manuscripts go through when they are received for printing (optional for companion program) - photo pages, pagination confirmed, margins spot checked - includes general inspection for any unforeseen factors that would affect cost or quality of book.
Chicago Screw (brand name)/Post Bound: Soft type binding. Pages and cover stock are punched and plastic or metal screws (posts) are inserted to fasten the book. Traditionally, books utilize a three hole pattern, but this may be altered. Click here for more information.
CMYK: Full Color model (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key Black) for digital files. Other standard model is RGB.
Coated Paper: Paper is traditionally coated on two sides and is broadly used for all types of printing, included multicolor work. Lately, paper coated only on one side has become available and widely used as an economical measure.
Coil Bound: Soft type binding. Like comb binding method except a coil or spiral secures the book instead of a comb. Click here for more information.
Collating: Pages of a publication are printed singly, the required amount of copies at a time. They are then arranged into the proper sequence (we request numerical order). Alt: Gathering or arranging printed sheets or signatures into the desired sequence, by hand or machine.
Comb Bound: Soft type binding. Your pages and cover are punched and a plastic comb secures the book at the spine. This is a favored cover for cook books and the like because they lay virtually flat on their own. Click here for more information.
*Copyright page: see verso
Corners - Library: Each corner of the cover material is folded at a 45-degree angle that permanently affixes to the cover boards. All glued-off overhang shall be turned into the case. Meets library binding standard: ANSI/NISO/LBI Z39.78
Corners - Traditional: Overhang shall be cut away at a 45-degree angle at each corner. All head and tale overhang shall be turned into the case, then the tip of the corner tucked in before the fore and back edges are permanently adhered. Meets library binding standard: ANSI/NISO/LBI Z39.78
Cover Plate (Artwork Engraving): A product necessary for the inclusion of special artwork such as drawings, coats of arms, borders, etc. on the front cover of a hard bound book. Also, more economical than per line imprint for multi-line impressions and/or large orders.
Digital Printing: Many different things are defined as digital printing. We feel the true definition is a system where a computer is hooked directly to a printing press. Many times this term is used for copy machine work both from computer file and hard copy. We have a digital copy machine that prints directly from computer file - see Print on Demand.
*Double Wire Binding: Soft type of binding where spine of book consists of double wire loops threaded through holes in book block. This method is more durable then spiral binding. See Coil/Spiral Binding
Drop Ship (marketing): Within 48 hours of receiving an order, it is forwarded to the Copyright holder, author, publisher, etc. (usually by postal system). That person maintains all book inventory and controls shipment. After they receive the order, they fill/ship it within 10 days. Due to the many individuals and businesses as well as different shipping methods Gregath does not guarantee a specific carrier or class. If the person has failed to inform Gregath as to an out of print status, a full refund is issued for the unavailable book. See Also Special Order
E-book (Electronic Book): Any book or manuscript that is reproduced for distribution electronically on the Internet or disk - 3½" floppy or compact (CD). Click here for more information.
Electronic Manuscript Page Number: see Page Number
End Sheet(s) (*Leaf/*end papers): The element of a hardbound book that consists of the "inside" of the covers and the first and last sheet of paper in the book. The end sheets are adhered to the inside of the binding boards and attach to the book via a double hinge that includes a sheet of paper.
*Engraving: See Cover Plate
Finish: Term that describes the surface characteristic of a particular paper. i.e. antique, cockle, eggshell, embossed, English, felt, leatherette, linen, machine, pebble, vellum, wove, etc.
Flat Back (square back): A book that has not been rounded and backed.
Fold out (gate fold): Any included material in a book that is larger than the text page. Inclusion in book, by definition, must be printed on oversized paper and folded smaller than finished book size to allow for unfolding.
Foot band/Headband (also header/footer or head/tail in binding): A strip of embroidered cloth at the end (top/bottom) of the spine, extending beyond the book block. Optional ALA element included in Gregath deluxe binding. Pictured at right in maroon/gold.
Four (4)/Full Color Separation: Each of the colors that make "full color" are separated in preparation to print separately - these layers make up the full color printed item. A color photograph is reproduced in the print media through this process.
Galley: A mock up of the books layouts. This layout doesn't usually have final illustrations, artwork, or photographs. Galleys are rarely included in basic prices. - See ARC
*Gang Shoot(ing): Several photographs to be included in the publication are placed together and half toned at one time. While many printers do this by shooting any photo "as they come" within the manuscript - this does not turn out well many times for very light and very dark photos. This technique is often employed to reduce cost of photo. Our new electronic half toning process eliminates this need.
Gloss(y) paper: Paper that has been coated on one or both sides during paper production. Some high gloss papers glare, making them difficult to read. Additionally, gloss paper is generally expensive and can not be offset printed.See also paper primer.
Gripper Margin (*Grip): Margin space that is needed to get the page through the press. Strictly speaking the *Grip is space that cannot be printed upon, and is always larger on one of the 4 edges of the paper. See Print Margin
Grain - see paper grain
Margin on the "inside" of a printed book
page. When books are printed, the margin on the inside
is usually larger to allow for easy book handling. We assure
your gutter margin when making plates for printing, free of
From: ANSI/NISO/LBI STANDARD FOR LIBRARY BINDING - (inner margin, gutter margin, back margin) The distance between the binding edge of a printed page and the printed area.
Halftone (pre-press): An image taken from your photo that has a dot pattern laid on it (or made up of dots) for better reproduction. Without the correct dot pattern, the photo would look like a bad copy machine copy (motley). Many of today's newer copiers automatically lay a pattern, thus better copies.
Deluxe/Executive Hardbinding: see above - binding material is usually Lexitone. Book is Oversewn with free spine imprint including bars and free custom (no larger than 6x9") front imprint - variety of inks & foils available. Click here for more information.
*Hard Copy Manuscript:See Camera Ready Manuscript
Hard strip spine: For these hard covers, a hard strip inlay is made from material that is the same thickness as the front and back cover boards, with the inlay slightly narrower than the text bulk. This creates a book with "shoulders".
Headband/Footband (also header/footer in binding terms): A strip of embroidered cloth at the end (top/bottom) of the spine, extending beyond the book block. Optional ALA element included in Gregath deluxe binding. Now available as upgrade in color hard binding. See also head/header in manuscript/text.
Hinge In: A paper or cloth strip may be adhered along the binding edge of the a page, or pages, to be added after the book has been bound, so that the strip extends beyond the binding edge. This can then be "hinged" into a "finished" book by pasting up the part of the paper or cloth strip that extends beyond the addition, and adhering the strip to the binding edge of a sheet (or leaf) in the text block. This may also be used to change a given published page: cut the page to be replaced out of the existing book leaving as wide a bound paper strip as the binding margin will allow; follow instructions as above or - trim the replacement page to fit the published book (with extra paper to overlap bound strip); using an archival quality media, attach replacement page to bound strip.
Hybrid Book: A traditionally published book that includes electronic files on a movable format (CD, etc.).
Inlay (back strip): A heavy but flexible paper strip used to stiffen the spine of a finished book.
ISBN: International Standard Book Number - assigned by various agencies world wide. A unique 10 (old) or 13 (new) digit number, used for inventory control by many book sellers. The assignment of this number also places the title in "Books in Print". http://www.isbn.org
Joint: The grooves that run top to bottom (head to tail) on the outside of the cover itself, front and back, along which the boards hinge when they open.See Line Spacing see end sheet
*Leaf Attachment: How the pages of a text block are affixed together such as sewn by thread, adhesive, or non-ANSI/NISO/LBI Standard: staples.
Library Binding Institute (LBI): The main trade associating representing the binding industry. They collaborated with the National Information Standards Organization (NISO) to produce the American National Standard fro library binding.
Lining (super, mull, crash, and gauze): Material used to reinforce spines of library bound books. This material is a part of the end paper system and provides the means for a firm connection between text block and cover, giving shape and firmness to the book.
Logo: Usually the following text printed in four lines centered at the bottom of the verso: Printed in the United States of America from author submitted camera ready copy by: Gregath Company, Inc. P O BOX 505 - Wyandotte, OK 74370 http://www.gregathcompany.com.
Manuscript Page Number (Electronic): see Page Number
Margins: See Print Margin
*Mechanical binding: Bindings utilizing a mechanical medium of fastening such as wires, staples, or plastic.Gregath classified as soft or hard type binding.
The spines of books and periodicals can be
cut away on a milling machine to prepare them for oversewing. A machine
text block, spine down, and
moves it over rotating blades, cutting away (grinding) approximately 1/8 inch of the
binding margin, allowing for a clean edge to bind. For
rebinding, this removes old adhesive, thread, and/or folds of
signatures. After milling, all
text blocks are
comprised of lose leaves.
Non-reproducible (color - including some blue): Many times referring to special light blue or red pencils (or specialty colors such as lime and purple)that do not reproduce when put through the printing process. Any mark produced by any means on paper that will not reproduce may be considered "non-repro". If using a pencil, keep the tip dull as sharp tips will crease the paper and the crease itself in some cases will reproduce.
Notch/Notching (may be used in perfect binding): Parallel grooves cut into the spine perpendicular to the binding edge. The depth and the distance between the grooves can be adjusted to suit the size and weight of the text block. Notching (vs. not notching) increases the amount of surface area on the spine that comes in contact with the adhesive and increases the strength of some type bindings.
Page Number: Whether numbered to the eye, or "unnumbered", each page carries it's own number designation. Unnumbered pages may exist out of the normal numbering scheme (12A, 12B, etc.), but still must be identified in some way. A book that is numbered 144, 145, 147 should have a blank 146 and still may need corrected.
Page Number (Electronic Manuscript): Number of page from the beginning of the manuscript. this file page number, not manuscript page number. i.e. the last page of the book is numbered 100, but there is a frontice piece and 8 alternately numbered pages making the last electronic manuscript page number 110.
Perfect (*adhesive, *notch, *wrap around cover) Binding/Bound: Soft type binding type that secures pages and cover together with glue at the spine (square backed). Stereotype paperback - think telephone directory or paperback novel. Click here for information web page.
Photo (picture) page(s): Any page that includes a photograph or photographic reproduction in the manuscript. See Also Photos webpage.
Photocopying (Preservation): See preservation photocopying webpage.
Plates: In printing, a plate is made from the original manuscript page. The plate is then used on the offset press to re-produce the page. In binding, a plate is made of any artwork for embossing (stamping) covers, See Cover Plate.
POD: abbreviation -See Print on Demand
Post binding: See Chicago Screw
Point: Unit of thickness, one thousandth of an inch (0.001").
Preservation Photocopying: See preservation photocopying webpage.
Print Margin: Presses cannot print edge to edge on a page (impression area). Binding requires trimming also. Proper margin allowance ensures a pleasing end product. The gripper margin includes space that, while impression will take, it is not always quality. Additionally, for books, a sizable clear margin makes a more eye appealing book. (White space all around)
Printing: See Offset Printing
Print Run: Defines the number of copies printed. With our system, usually anything under 100 will be digitally "printed", and anything 100 and over will generally be offset printed.
Raw Material: Term used to identify different formats of information such as handwritten material, posters, bills of sale, certificates and documents, typed pages, etc. that are to be used in preparing a camera ready manuscript.
Relative Humidity: Ratio of water vapor in the air to the amount present at the same temperature if the atmosphere were fully saturated. This effects durability and permanence.
Recycled Paper: Paper that is half (50%) either pre-consumer or post-consumer waste.
RGB: Full Color model (Red, Green, Blue) for digital files. Other standard model is CMYK.
Road Map: A list or representation of how different elements are to go together into a publication. For instance: a photo list with page number/placement and/or pages copied with the photos in place. See Dummy
Round/Rounding (see back): The mechanical or manual manipulation of the spine of a text block into a convex shape (and the consequent manipulation of the fore edge into a concave shape). Rounding usually precedes backing. Rounding and backing help distribute the swell than naturally occurs with sewing and adhesive binding.
Saddle Stitch: Soft type binding where pages are printed four and folded in the middle (spine) and stapled in the fold. Many program books and most magazines are saddle stitched. Due to the paper being folded as a spine, this works well with only small page count books. Click here for information web page.
Screen/Screening: Used in the halftone process to reduce continuous tones to a series of solid dots (See Halftone). Also refers to shading a block of text - many times in boxes or set apart.
Self-Mailer: Publications (Newsletter, marketing material, etc.) that design the mailing area (space for return & delivery addresses, postage, etc.) into the outer cover and are sealed closed for mailing - sans envelope. Please note that self-mailers must still be packaged for international mail originating within the United States.
Serif Type: See Font - Finishing strokes (usually horizontal) at the ends of letters. Examples: times new roman, alaska, etc. Considered easiest to read as the serifs draw the eye along during reading.
*Shoulder (joint, ridge, flange): Formed when a text block is backed. During this process the outermost leaves on both sides are bent out at 45 degrees along the binding edge. The ridge that is formed by this process, on either side of the spine, is the shoulder.
Side Sewing: Method of attaching *signatures or individual pages together by sewing the entire text block, along the binding margin, in a single pass by machine. Meets library binding standard: ANSI/NISO/LBI Z39.78
Signature (*section or *gathering): Groups of individual pages printed together on a single sheet of paper at one time. Two or more sheets of paper, stacked and folded one to (rarely) five times to make a section. Signatures are commonly eight, sixteen or thirty-two pages as a group. Generally signature groups of 8, 16, or 32 pages are grouped together and used in the less durable Smythe sewn hard binding method. This process doesn't allow for the high quality control of most individual printed page systems.
Slip Case (or box): Specially built storage box that matches binding material.
Softbound (soft back, soft cover, paper back): Books are secured at the spine - all pages and a cover (index, cover stock, plastic coated, etc.). A few of the types we offer are Chicago screw (*mechanical), coil/spiral (*mechanical), comb (*mechanical), perfect, saddle (*mechanical), three-hole (*mechanical), velobind (*mechanical), etc.
Soft strip spine: This hard binding method uses a thin card stock spine strip equal to the thickness of the text bulk.
Spine (backbone): Side of the book where all the pages are secured together to the binding - opposite the trim edge. It is the actual edge visible facing outward when a book sits on the shelf. Center or back of book - surface usually carries lettering (free on all hard bindings). Hardbound spines may be square, hard strip or soft strip.
Spiral/Coil Binding: Soft type of binding by means of a spiral-twisted wire or plastic coil at spine.
Spot Color: On a standard printed page, the use of colored ink to highlight an area. The colored area is not very near or touching any other ink. If this entry were printed it would have o maroon spot color o.
Square hard cover spine: This hard cover uses an inlay which is of the same weight board as the front and back case boards, but the spine is made 3/16" wider than the text bulk. This creates a "square" look.
*Tail: The bottom edge of a leaf,
board, or bound volume; that is, the surface on which a volume rests when
Tape and Staple (*side stitch): Soft type binding where your pages may be stitched or "stapled" down the spine and the edges covered in tape. Click here for more information.
*Tear Sheet: Loose page from a book. Also: photocopy of article that appears in print. Term originated when actual publications were torn apart to send pages and articles to authors or as marketing before modern copy machines made this not necessary.
Text Block: The pages/leaves of a book after they have been bound together. A group of printed or written pages that may be or have been bound, excluding all paper to be added by the bookbinder such as the endpapers, etc.
Tip in: A thin line of adhesive is applied along the edge of a paper/leaf (usually along the binding edge), and the leaf is tipped onto another leaf (usually at the binding edge). The openability of a tipped-in leaf will be somewhat restricted.
Title Page: Generally the first page of a book (odd side), that contains at least the book title, many times author and may include other things such as publish date, publisher, brief text or quote, illustration, etc. Almost always the odd (front) side of verso.
Three Hole Punch (loose-leaf binding/drilling): Soft type binding. Pages are three hole punched to be placed in three ring or notebook binders. Click here for more information.
Trim Size (generally not in use with books): Actual size of finished item, as in "trimmed down to". An 8½x11", self cover publication generally has a trim size smaller than 8½x11".
Turn-in: The covering material that is turned over the outer edges of the binding boards and inlay. The turn-in protects the boards and inlay from wear.
Two Sided Printing: Sheets of paper that are printed on both sides. In books, a two sided printed sheet contains two pages.
Uncoated: Paper with no surface treatment; the printing surface is the stock itself.
Watermark: Mark traditionally produced during paper production within the structure of the paper. Digital watermarks may be produced by applying a ghosted mark during the printing process to paper or other media.
Page Last Updated: December 22, 2016
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